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  • Writer's pictureJohn Davis

Where Does Vanadium Come From?

Vanadium is a transition metal that plays a vital role in a range of industrial and technological applications. From strengthening steel to powering batteries, this versatile element has become increasingly important in modern society. But where does vanadium come from, and how is it produced? In this article, we'll explore the sources and applications of vanadium, as well as its importance in various industries and its impact on the environment.

gray vanadium chemical composition cube

What is Vanadium?

Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-gray metal that is commonly found in minerals such as vanadinite, patronite, and carnotite. Vanadium is often used as an alloying agent in steel production, where it imparts increased strength and durability. It is also used in the production of superalloys, which are used in aerospace applications due to their high strength and temperature resistance.

Sources of Vanadium

Vanadium is found in various minerals, including titanomagnetite, vanadinite, and carnotite. The most significant source of vanadium is titanomagnetite, a mineral that contains both iron and titanium. This mineral is abundant in certain areas, such as Russia, China, and South Africa, where it is extracted from the ground using a process known as smelting. During smelting, the ore is heated to high temperatures and treated with chemicals to extract the vanadium, which is then purified and processed into various forms.

Another source of vanadium is oil shale, a sedimentary rock that contains high levels of organic matter. When heated, oil shale releases gasses that contain vanadium, which can then be extracted using various techniques.

Applications of Vanadium

Vanadium has a wide range of applications in various industries. One of the most significant uses of vanadium is in steel production, where it is added to the alloy to increase its strength and durability. Vanadium steel is used in a range of applications, including construction, transportation, and manufacturing.

Vanadium is also used in the production of superalloys, which are used in high-temperature applications such as jet engines and gas turbines. Superalloys are alloys that exhibit high strength, corrosion resistance, and thermal stability, making them ideal for use in extreme environments.

Another application of vanadium is in the production of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). These batteries use vanadium ions in a liquid electrolyte to store energy, making them ideal for use in renewable energy systems such as solar and wind power. VRFBs have several advantages over traditional lithium-ion batteries, including longer lifetimes, higher energy densities, and greater safety.

Environmental Impact

Like all mining and industrial processes, the extraction and processing of vanadium can have a significant impact on the environment. The smelting process used to extract vanadium from titanomagnetite can release sulfur dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, leading to acid rain and other environmental problems. In addition, the production of vanadium steel can generate significant amounts of waste and carbon emissions, contributing to climate change and other environmental issues.

To mitigate these impacts, many companies are exploring more sustainable methods of vanadium production, such as using renewable energy sources and recycling vanadium from waste streams. In addition, the development of VRFBs and other vanadium-based energy storage systems can help to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and mitigate the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption.


Vanadium is a versatile and essential element that plays a vital role in various industries, from steel production to energy storage. Although it is a rare element, vanadium can be found in many minerals and is produced as a byproduct of mining for other metals. As we continue to seek sustainable energy solutions, vanadium will undoubtedly play an even more critical role in the future.

Learn More About StorEn’s Redox Flow Batteries

We’re excited to share more about how StorEn Technologies is pioneering energy storage with our vanadium redox flow battery. We are here to answer your questions. Please visit our website to learn more about StorEn Technologies.

1 Comment

Nov 05, 2023

It's all fine to extol the virtues of a product however, to invoke a lesser used idiom, "Where's the beef?" I'd like to see an actual product for residential use. The technology has been around for decades in larger scale applications. It would be nice to actuall see a product or at least an estimated time to market.

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